开心快3

PCB电路板外观检测标准,电路板怎么合格验收?

开心快3RIQI:2019-04-13 / RENQI: / LAIYUAN:eecqu.com

PCBDIANLUBANSHIPCBAJIAGONGZHONGDEJICHUDIANZICAILIAO,RENHEPCBAJIAGONGDOULIBUKAIPCBDIANLUBAN。DIANLUBANZENYANGYANSHOU,YOUNAXIEJUTIXUZHUYIDEYANSHOUBIAOZHUN?ZHEIXIEPCBYANSHOUBIAOZHUNRUHEKAOHE?

PCBYINZHIBANBIAOMIANKEGUANCHADAOGEZHONGTEXING,CHANGJIANDEYOUXIASHUWAIBUTEXINGHECONGBIAOMIANGUANCHABUDAODENEIBUTEXING。ZHEIXIEPCBWAIGUANJIANCEBIANSHIDIANLUBANYANSHOUZHUYAOCANKAODEBIAOZHUN。

  1. 板材边缘和表面缺陷
    • 毛刺
    • 缺口
    • 划痕
    • 凹槽
    • 纤维划伤
    • 露织物和空洞
    • 外来夹杂物
    • 白斑/微裂纹
    • 分层
    • 粉红圈
    • 层压空洞
  2. 镀覆孔
    • 孔对位不准
    • 外来夹杂物
    • 镀层或涂覆层的缺陷
  3. 印制接触片
    • 麻点
    • 针孔
    • 结瘤
    • 露铜
  4. 图形尺寸
    • 尺寸及厚度
    • 孔径及图形精度
    • 导线宽度及间距
    • 重合度
    • 环宽
  5. 印制板的平整度
    • 弓曲
    • 扭曲

板边

YANZHEBANCAIBIANYUANKENENGCHANSHENGMAOCI、QUEKOUHUOYUNQUANDENGQUEXIAN,GUYOUYIDINGJIESHOUYAOQIU。

毛刺

毛刺

MAOCIBIAOXIANWEICONGBIAOMIANSHENCHULAIDEBUGUIZEDEXIAOKUAIZHUANGHUOTUANZHUANGTUQI,SHIJIXIEJIAGONGDEHOUGUO,LIRUZUANKONGHUOQIEGE。MAOCIKEFENWEIJINSHUMAOCIHEFEIJINSHUMAOCI。

  • 理想:板材边缘平顺,无毛边;
  • 可接收:板边缘粗糙但不破坏板边;
  • 拒收:板边受损严重。

缺口

缺口

  • 理想:边缘光滑,无缺口;
  • 可接收:边缘粗糙,但无缺损。缺口深度不大于板边缘与最近导体间距的50%或大于2.5mm,两者中取较小值;
  • 拒收:不符合标准。

晕圈

晕圈

开心快3 YUNQUANSHIYIZHONGYOUYUJIJIAGONGYINQIDEJICAIBIAOMIANSHANGHUOBIAOMIANXIADAODIANSUILIEHUOFENCENGXIANXIANG;YUNQUANTONGCHANGBIAOXIANWEIZAIKONGDEZHOUWEIHUOQITAJIJIAGONGDEBUWEICHENGXIANFANBAIQUYU,HUOLIANGZHETONGSHICUNZAI。

  • 理想:无晕圈;
  • 可接收:晕圈的范围使从板边缘与最近导电图形间未受影响的距离减少不超过50%,或大于2.5mm,两者中取较小值;
  • 拒收:不符合标准。

层压基材

CENGYABANQUEXIANKENENGSHIZAIYINZHIBANSHENGCHANZHECONGJIBANSHANGJIESHOUYINZHIBANJICAISHIJIUYIJINGCUNZAI,HUOSHIZAIYINZHIBANZHIZAOQIJIANCAIXIANLUCHULAI。

织纹显露、断裂和纤维断裂

露织物

  • 露织物:指基材的一种表面状况,即尚未断裂的织物纤维没有被树脂完全覆盖。导体间除去露织物区域外,余下距离满足最小导线间距要求,则可接收。
  • 显布纹:指基材的一种表面状况,即尚未断裂的织物纤维虽被树脂完全覆盖,但编织纹路明显。显布纹属于可接收状况,但显布纹和显织物某些时候有同样的外观,令人难以判定。
  • 露纤维/纤维断裂:露纤维或纤维断裂未使导线产生桥接,并未使导线的间距低于最低要求时,可以接收;若导致导线桥接或导线间距低于最小要求时,则应拒收。

麻点和空洞

麻点

  • 理想:无麻点和空洞;
  • 可接收:麻点或空洞不超过0.8mm(0.031in),每面受影响区域小于5%。麻点或空洞未造成导体桥接;
  • 拒收:不符合标准。

空洞

白斑

白斑

BAIBANBIAOXIANWEIJICAIBIAOMIANXIABULIANXUDEBAISEFANGKUAIHUO“SHIZI”WEN,QIXINGCHENGTONGCHANGYUREYINGLIYOUGUAN。BAIBANSHIYIZHONGJICAIBIAOMIANXIADEXIANXIANG,ZAIXINCENGYAJICAISHANGHEZHIWUZENGQIANGCENGYABANZHICHENGDEGEZHONGBANSHANGDOUSHIYOUFASHENG。YOUYUBAIBANJUEDUICHUXIANZAIBIAOMIANXIAQIESHIZAIXIANWEISHUJIAOCHACHUFASHENGFENLIERCHUXIAN,YINCI,QICHUXIANDEWEIZHIXIANGDUIYUBIAOMIANDAOXIANHAOWUYIYI。IPC-A-600GBIAOZHUNRENWEICHULEYONGHUQUEDINGDEYONGYUGAODIANYACHANGHEWAI,BAIBANDUISUOYOUCHANPINLAISHUODOUSHIKEYIJIESHOUDE,DANTAYISHIWEIGONGYIJINGSHI,TIXINGZHIZAOZHEGONGYIYICHUYUSHIKONGDEBIANYUAN。

微裂纹

裂纹

  • 层压基材内纤维发生分离的一种内部状况。微裂纹可在纤维交织处或沿纤维丝长度方向出现。微裂纹状况表现为基材表面下相连的白点或“十字纹”,通常与机械应力有关。
  • 微裂纹使导线间距减少不低于最小导线间距值,微裂纹区域不超过相邻导电图形之间距离的50%,板边的微裂纹未减少板边与导电图形的最小距离(若未做规定,则为2.5mm),且热应力测试后缺陷不再扩大,则2、3级板可接收。
  • 如果微裂纹区域的扩散超过导电图形间距的50%,但导电图形无桥接,1级板可以接收(其余条件同2、3级)。

分层和起泡

分层

开心快3 FENCENG:CHUXIANZAIJICAINEIDECENGZHIJIAN、JICAIYUDAODIANBOZHIJIANHUOQITARENHEYINZHIBANCENGNEIDEFENLIXIANXIANG。

起泡

开心快3 QIPAO:CENGYAJICAIRENYICENGZHIJIANHUOZHEJICAIYUDAODIANBOHUOBAOHUXINGTUCENGZHIJIANDEJUBUPENGZHANGHEFENLIDEXIANXIANG。YANSHOUBIAOZHUNJIANBIAO13-8。IPC-A-600GBIAOZHUNYOUGUANGUIDINGZHONG,2、3JIBANJIESHOUTIAOJIANRUXIA:

  • 受缺陷影响的面积不超过板子每面面积的1%。
  • 缺陷没有将导电图形间的间距减小到低于规定的最小间距要求。
  • 起泡或分层跨距不大于相邻导电图形之间距离的25%。
  • 经过模拟制造条件的热应力试验后缺陷不扩大。
  • 与板边缘距离不小于规定的板边缘与导电图形间的最小距离;若未规定时,则大于2.5mm。

IPC-A-600GBIAOZHUNYOUGUANGUIDINGZHONG,1JIBANJIESHOUTIAOJIANRUXIA:

  • 受缺陷影响的面积不能超过板子每面面积的1%。
  • 起泡或分层跨距大于相邻导线间距的25%,但没有将导电图形间的间距减小到低于最小间距要求。
  • 经过模拟制造条件的热应力试验后缺陷不扩大。
  • 与板边缘距离不小于规定的板边缘与导电图形间的最小距离;若未规定时,则大于2.5mm。

外来夹杂物

杂物

WAILAIJIAZAWUSHIZHIJIAGUOZAIJUEYUANCAILIAONEIDEJINSHUHUOFEIJINSHUWEILI。

开心快3 WAILAIJIAZAWUKEYIZAIJIBANYUANCAILIAO、YUJINCAILIAO(BJIEDUAN)HUOYIZHICHENGDEDUOCENGYINZHIBANZHONGBEIJIANCECHULAI。WAILAIWUKENENGSHIDAOTIYEKENENGSHIFEIDAOTI,ZHEILIANGZHONGQINGKUANGJUNYIJUQIDAXIAOJISUOZAIBUWEILAIQUEDINGSHIFOUJUSHOU。

TONGCHANGBANZHONGBANTOUMINGJIAZAWUKEJIESHOU,BUTOUMINGJIAZAWUZAIYIXIAQINGKUANGXIASHIKEJIESHOUDE:

  • 夹杂物距最近导体的距离不小于0.125mm。
  • 没有造成相邻导线间间距低于最小要求值,如果无特殊说明,不得低于0.125mm。
  • 板子的电气性能未受影响。

镀覆孔

DUFUKONGYOUCHENGDUTONGKONG,GUONEIYECHANGCHENGZUOJINSHUHUAKONG。KONGBIDUCENGYINGSHIPINGHUAERJUNYUNDE,DUCENGYINGWUCUCAO、JIELIU、MAOCIDENGXIANXIANG。

结瘤/毛刺

结瘤

KONGBIRUYOUJIELIU、MAOCIDENGQUEXIAN,DANWEISHIDUCENGHOUDUJIANXIAODAOYUNXUDEZUIDITONGHOUDEYAOQIU,BINGNENGMANZUDUFUHOUZUIXIAOKONGJINGDEYAOQIU,ZEKEYIJIESHOU,FOUZEBUHEGE。

  • 理想:无明显镀瘤和毛边;
  • 可接收:满足成品最小孔径要求;
  • 拒收:不能满足成品最小孔径要求。

粉红圈

红圈

MUQIANSHANGWUZUGOUZHENGJUZHENGMINGFENHONGQUANHUIYINGXIANGDAOGONGNENGXING。FENHONGQUANZHICUNZAIKEYIRENWEISHIYIZHONGZHICHENGJINGSHI,KAOLVDEZHONGDIANSHICENGJIANJIEHEPINZHIHEQINGJIEZHENGKONGDELIUCHENG。SHIJISHANG,GUONEIWAIHENDUOKEHUYANSHOUDUOCENGYINZHIBANSHI,ZHIYAOFAXIANYOUSHAOWEIYANZHONGDEFENHONGQUAN,DOUSHIJUSHOUDE。

镀层空洞

空洞

DUCENGKONGDONGHUIYINGXIANGDUFUKONGDEKONGDIANZUHEFUZAIDIANLIUDENENGLI,DUIDUTONGCENGHECHENGPINBANZUIZHONGTUFUCENGDEYAOQIUYOUSUOBUTONG。

开心快3 YINGXIANGKONGDIANZUDEZHUYAOSHITONGDUCENG,SUOYIDUITONGDUCENGDEKONGDONGYAOQIUBIJIAOYANGE。

  • 可接收:任一孔内空洞不多于一个。含空洞的孔数不超过5%。空洞长度不超过孔长的5%。空洞小于圆周的90;任一孔内空洞不多于三个。含空洞的孔数不超过10%。空洞长度不超过孔长的10%。所有空洞小于圆周的90。
  • 拒收:不能满足标准化要求。

DUIYUFEIZHICHENGKONG,GUONEIYEJIEYEYOUDECHENGZUOFEIJINSHUHUAKONG,TASHIKONGNEIWUJINSHUDEANZHUANGKONG,TADEZHUYAOBULIANGXIANXIANGSHIYUNQUAN。IPCDEBIAOZHUNRENWEIMEIYOUYUNQUANHUOBANBIANFENCENGSHIZUILIXIANGDEQINGKUANG。YUNQUANDESHENTOUHUOBIANYUANFENCENGZAOCHENGGAIKONGBIANDAOZUIHOUDAOXIANJIANJUDEJIANSHAOBUYINGCHAOGUOGUIDINGDE50%。RUWUGUIDING,ZEBUDAYU2.5mm。

印制接触片

开心快3 YINZHIJIECHUPIANYECHENGYINZHICHATOU,JISUCHENGDEJINSHOUZHI。

  • 理想:表面光滑、无针孔、麻点和电镀结瘤,焊料层或阻焊层与接触片之间没有露铜和涂层交叠的区域;
  • 可接收:接插关键区内(通常指3/5的中段)无底金属层外露,未出现溅出焊料或镀层,无结瘤和金属凸出。麻点、凹陷及凹陷区最大尺寸未超过0.15mm,这种缺陷在每片金手指上不可超过3个,有此缺点的金手指数不可超过总数的30%。露铜/镀层重叠区不超过1.25mm;

图形尺寸

YINZHIBANDECHICUNSHIYINZHIBANANZHUANGHESHIYONGDEZHUYAOCANSHUZHIYI,YINGMANZUCAIGOUWENJIANGUIDINGDECHICUNYAOQIU,RUBANDEZHOUBIAN、HOUDU、QIEKOU、KAICAO、QUEKOUJIBANBIANLIANJIEQIDENG。YONGYUJIANYANYINZHIBANZHEIXIETEXINGDESHEBEIDEJINGDU、KEZHONGFUXINGJIKEZAIXIANXINGYIWEISUOYANZHENGCHICUNDEGONGCHAFANWEIDE10%HUOGENGXIAO。

导线宽度

YINZHIBANDAOXIANDEKUANDUHEJIANJUSHIHENGLIANGYINZHIBANDEJIAGONGZHILIANGHEGONGYISHUIPINGDEZHONGYAOCHIDU,YESHIYUANSHIDIPIANZAIXIANQINGKUANGDEYIZHONGPANDING。ERYUANSHIDIPIANYIJIBENSHANGQUEDINGLEDAODIANTUXINGDEZUIXIAOXIANKUANHEJIANJUYAOQIU,CHUFEIWEIBEILEZHEIXIETEXING,DAOXIANBIANYUANBIZHENDUBUBIZUOWEIJIESHOUHUOJUSHOUDETIAOJIAN,DANZHEIZHONG“BIANYUANBIZHENDU”QUEKEZUOWEIYIZHONGGONGYIZHICHENGDEJINGSHI,KEYONGYUJIANCHAZHIZAOGUOCHENGSHIFOUQIADANG。

  • 可接收:
    1. 导线边缘粗糙、缺口、针孔及暴露基材的划伤等缺陷的任何组合使导线宽度的减小不超过最低宽度的20%。缺陷(边缘粗糙、缺口等)总长度不大于导线长度的10%或超过13mm,两者中取较小值;
    2. 导线边缘粗糙、缺口、针孔及划伤露基材等缺陷的任意组合使导线宽度的减小不超过最低宽度的30%或更小。缺陷(边缘粗糙、缺口等)总长度不大于导线长度的10%或超过25mm,两者中取较小值;
  • 拒收:不能满足标准化要求。

外层环宽

焊盘

开心快3 WAICENGLIANJIEPANDEYUANHUANYIBANCHENGWEIHANPAN,QIHUANKUANSHIZHIHUANRAOZAIKONGZHOUWEI,CONGKONGDEBIANYUANDAOLIANJIEPANWAIYUANDEDAOTIKUANDU。HUANKUANDEDAXIAOHUIYINGXIANGDAOHANJIEZHILIANG,DUIYUJINSHUKONGHEFEIZHICHENGKONGDEHUANKUANYAOQIUYOUSUOQUBIE。LIXIANGDEYINGSHIWEIYUHANPANDEZHONGXIN,SHIJISHANGYOUYUTUXINGCHENGXIANG、ZUANKONGDEDINGWEIWUCHA,KENENGHUIYOUYIXIEPIANYI,PIANYILIANGDEDAXIAOJUEDINGLEZUIXIAOHUANKUAN。

  • 可接收条件3级:孔不位于焊盘中心,但环宽大于或等于0.050mm。测量区域内的环宽由于诸如麻点、凹坑、缺口、针孔或斜孔等缺陷的存在,最小外层环宽可以减少20%。
  • 可接收条件2级:破环小于或等于90°。A焊盘与导线的连接区导线宽度的减少不大于工程图纸或生产底版中标称的最小导线宽度的20%,允许破环90°。导线连接处应不小于0.050mm或最小线宽,两者取较小值。C满足导线之间最小侧向间距。
  • 可接收条件1级:破环小于等于180°。B如破环发生在焊盘、导线的连接区,导线宽度的减少不大于生产底版中标称的最小导线宽度的30%。D不影响外观、安装和功能。满足导线之间最小侧向间距要求。

多层板层间介质层厚度

DUOCENGBANCENGJIANJIEZHIHOUDUYINGFUHESHEJIWENJIANYAOQIU。RUOWUJUTIGUIDING,ZEBIXUBUXIAOYU0.09mm;CENGYABANZHONGDEKONGDONGZAIBUWEIFANSHEJIGUIDINGDEZUIXIAOJIANJUDEQIANTIXIA,2、3JIYAOQIUBANYOUBUDAYU0.08mmDECENGYAKONGDONG,ZAIREYINGLISHIYANHOU,YUNXUZAISHOUREQUYOUKONGDONGHUOSHUZHIAOSUO;1JIBANDEKONGDONGBUDAYU0.15mm,JINGREYINGLISHIYANHOU,YUNXUZAISHOUREQUYOUKONGDONGHESHUZHIAOSUO。RUYINZHIBANYAOQIUZAIZHENKONGHUANJINGXIAGONGZUO,ZEBUYUNXUYOUKEGUANCHADAODEKONGDONG,YINWEIZHENKONGXIAKONGDONGDEQIPAOHUIYICHUERPOHUAIYINZHIBANDEBIAOMIANHUOPENGZHANGSHIJICAIFENCENG,HUOPOHUAIDUFUKONGDEDUCENG。

凹蚀

凹蚀

开心快3 AOSHIHUOFUAOSHIDEMUDESHIJIANGSHUZHIZUANWUCONGNEICENGTONGBOYUZUANKONGJIEMIANCHUQINGCHUGANJING。YOUSHUJURENWEI,“AOSHI”YAOBI“FUAOSHI”GENGWEIKEKAO,DANYEYOUXIANGFANDEGUANDIAN,ZHEIYAOSHICAIYONGDEDIANDUTONGTONGBODELEIXINGJITONGBODEHOUDUDENGERDING。GUODUDEAOSHIYIJIGUODUDEFUAOSHIDOUBUSHIMUBIAO。ZHEILIANGZHONGGUODUAOSHIDUIDUTONGKONGDEKEKAOXINGDOUHUIZAOCHENGFUMIANYINGXIANG。YOUHENDUOYINZHIBANZHIZAOSHANGBUGUANSHICAIYONGAOSHIHAISHIFUAOSHIGONGYIDOUHENCHENGGONG。CAIYONGNAZHONGTEDINGDEAOSHIGONGYI,QUJUEYUGEGESHEJIZHEHUOYONGHU,TONGSHIYEQUJUEYUSUOCAIYONGDECAILIAO、TONGDIANDU、TONGBOHEYINGYONGDENGYINSU,BINGGUIDINGYICAIYONGDEAOSHIGONGYI。

AOSHIYEJIAOZHENGAOSHI,YONGYUQUDIAOJIEZHICAILIAO。SHUZHICAILIAOBEIAOSHIDEJIXIANGSHUOMING,SUOYOUDESHUZHIZUANWUYIBEIWANQUANQUCHU,TONGSHIDUFUKONGDETONGHENEICENGTONGBOZHIJIANCHANSHENGCHUSANWEIJIEMIANDEJIEHE。SANWEILIANJIEBIYIGEJIEMIANLIANJIEGENGJIAKEKAO。DANQUEDIANSHIAOSHIHUIZAOCHENGKONGBICUCAO,SHIKONGBICHANSHENGHUANXINGLIEWEN、CANJIAO。GUODUDEAOSHIYEHUIDAOZHIKENENGYINQINEICENGTONGBOPOLIEDEYINGLI。SUOWEIDEAOSHIYINYINGSHIZHIZUANKONGHOUDEKONGBISHUZHIZAISHISHIAOSHIJIAGONGSHI,JINKAOTONGBODESHUZHIBINGWEIWANQUANBEIQINGCHU。ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGSUICHUKEJIAN,JISHIZAIBIECHUYIDADAOKEJIESHOUDEAOSHIQINGKUANG。

  • 理想:均匀凹蚀到最佳的深度0.013mm;
  • 可接收:凹蚀深度介于0.005mm与0.08mm之间。每个焊盘的一侧允许出现凹蚀阴影;
  • 拒收:不不能满足标准化要求。

开心快3 FUAOSHIDELILUNSHI,WEILEJIANGNEICENGTONGBOAOSHIQIEQINGJIE,SHOUXIANYAOBAZUANWUQUANBUQINGCHU。FUAOSHIDEYOUDIANSHIBUHUIXIANGAOSHINEIYANGZAINEICENGJIEMIANCHUCHANSHENGYINGLIJIZHONGDIAN,YINERFUAOSHIKEYIXINGCHENGYIGEFEICHANGPINGHUAERJUNYUNDEKONGBI。PINGHUADEKONGBIJIFUAOSHIDUICAIYONGGAOKEKAOXINGDEZHANGSHOUMINGYINGYONGDETONGDUCENGTEBIEYOULI。FUAOSHIDEQUEDIANSHI,RUGUOFUAOSHIGUODU,YOUYUAOCHUJIALIUQIPAOHEWUWU,KENENGYINQINEICENGFENLI。

  • 理想:均匀负凹蚀到最佳深度0.0025mm;
  • 可接收:可接收条件3级:负凹蚀深度小于0.013mm;可接收条件1,2级:负凹蚀深度小于0.025mm;
  • 拒收:不不能满足标准化要求。

平整度

YINZHIBANDEPINGZHENGDUSHIYOUCHANPINDELIANGZHONGTEXINGLAIQUEDINGDE,JIGONGQUHENIUQU。GONGQUDETEDIANSHIYINZHIBANDESIGEJIAOCHUZAITONGYIPINGMIANSHANG,DAZHICHENGYUANZHUXINGHUOQIUMIANWANQUDEZHUANGKUANG;ERNIUQUSHIBANDEBIANXINGPINGXINGYUBANDEDUIJIAOXIAN,BANDEYIGEJIAOBUYUQITASANGEJIAOZAITONGYIPINGMIANSHANG。YUANXINGHUOTUOYUANXINGDEBANBIXUPINGDINGZUIGAODIANDECHUIZHIWEIYI。BANDEGONGQUHENIUQUKENENGHUISHOUBANZISHEJIDEYINGXIANG,YINWEIBUTONGDEBUXIANHUODUOCENGBANDECENGJIEGOUDOUHUIDAOZHICHANSHENGBUTONGDEYINGLIHUOYINGLIXIAOCHUDETIAOJIAN。BANDEHOUDUJICAILIAOXINGNENGSHIYINGXIANGBANDEPINGZHENGDUDEQITAYINSU。DUIYUSHIYONGBIAOMIANANZHUANGYUANJIANDEYINZHIBAN,GONGQUHENIUQUYINGXIAOYUDENGYU0.75%。DUIYUSUOYOUQITALEIXINGBAN,GONGQUHENIUQUYINGXIAOYUDENGYU1.50%。

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作者:电子方案开发


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